Cold Spring Harbor, NY, July 28 – Most neurons in the mammalian brain are produced during embryonic development. However, several regions of the adult brain continue to spawn large numbers of neurons through the proliferation of neural stem cells. Moreover, it is becoming clear that these new neurons are integrated into existing brain circuitry.
Now, researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have discovered that a molecule called nitric oxide (NO) is a pivotal, natural regulator of the birth of new neurons in the adult brain. The study, published in this week’s issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that blocking nitric oxide production stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and hence dramatically increases the number of neurons that are generated in the brains of adult rats.
||Image of neurons in the rostral migratory stream of the rat brain. Red cells express nitric oxide synthase, whereas green cells are actively proliferating neurons.